Looking around, we seem to be too lonely. You can see lions, jaguars, tigers, leopards, snow leopards, they all belong to the genus Panthera. On the earth, most animals have close relatives of the same genus, but only Homo sapiens remains in the human genus. Why is human being so powerful, so lonely?
Are we a species exiled by an alien civilization, or are we the people of God? In fact, humans are not special, ancient fossils, and molecular biological evidence shows that we are rooted on the earth. Once we were not alone. 100,000 years ago, there were at least 6 kinds of people on the earth, and 50,000 years ago we had 3 brothers of the same family.
Of the three brothers, Neanderthals were the most powerful. They became extinct 40,000 years ago and have genetic intersections with modern humans. In other words, Neanderthals are related to us by blood.
The dwarf hobbits (Flores) were finally trapped on the island of Flores and became extinct 60,000 years ago. Some people have found their tracks in the rainforests of Southeast Asia. Some scientists believe that they may still exist, hiding in islands or rainforests that humans have not yet set foot in.
The mysterious Denisovans went extinct 30,000 years ago. We know very little about the Denisovans because they left too few fossils and information, but they did exist. The genes of Denisovans have been found in the genetic testing of the populations of Tibetans, Southeast Asia, Australia and other places.
Neanderthals are our most familiar brothers. In Europe and West Asia, a large number of Neanderthal fossils and ruins have been excavated. Based on these clues, anthropologists simulated the appearance of Neanderthals. If they are dressed up and dressed up at this moment and are in the same subway car as you, you will not see anything unusual, because Neanderthals and Homo sapiens (may include Denisovans) have a common ancestor-Heidelberg People (appeared 700,000 years ago).
Neanderthal is like a strong short fat man, with a huge brow bone, a larger nose, a slightly smaller calf to forearm ratio, and strong muscles. Neanderthals need to deal with the cold European forest environment, so they are shorter and reduce the heat dissipation area. Homo sapiens lives in the hot, open African savanna, so they are more slender. Although there are slight differences in body size, we are similar enough, just like the Siberian tiger meets the South China tiger.
Compared with Homo sapiens, Neanderthals are more serious and warlike, and they face more dangers. Imagine if you need to hunt a bear for dinner, you will be like them. They also have a soft side. By restoring wreckage and ruins, scientists discovered that Neanderthals created murals that would take care of the wounded and the weak. They would also bury the dead and even hold flower funerals. Therefore, Neanderthals have already begun to socialize, and they are by no means bloody and violent like wild beasts.
The brain capacity of Homo sapiens is not the largest. 250,000 years ago, the brain capacity of Neanderthals surpassed the level of modern people. But brain capacity is not the only factor that determines intelligence. If this is the case, the smartest on earth should be the blue whale. The brains of “alien horses” and Steve Jobs are not bigger than others. Obviously, intelligence based on brain capacity is untenable. .
Humans can carry out more complex and abstract thinking and social interactions, thereby producing technological innovations. This process requires the brain to weave our imagination and words together. Neanderthals have the same version of the language gene (FOXP2) as Homo sapiens, but this gene alone is not enough to create a Lu Xun. We have not yet figured out the extent of their thinking and language. However, analysis of the shape of the brain in the skull revealed that they have a language processing center. The structure of the throat suggests that they can make sounds that are more complex than apes, and they may be able to communicate complexly.
60,000 years ago, Neanderthals guarding the gates of Africa met Homo sapiens who walked out of Africa until 40,000 years ago, the Neanderthals suddenly disappeared. What happened in the past two thousand years, whether we are friends or enemies, is still a mystery. In 2010, scientists discovered that 1-4% of Neanderthal DNA flows in the body of modern people except Africa. This shows that Neanderthals once held a romantic (or brutal) bonfire party with Homo sapiens who went out of Africa. Conversely, the descendants of Homo sapiens who have crossed the gate of Africa have their genes. Only Homo sapiens who stayed in Africa do not. This proves that humans originated in Africa.
From the analysis of the ruins and tombs, the distribution of Neanderthals is more like today’s gorillas, scattered and isolated in small groups. According to estimates, the number of Neanderthals in the heyday may be less than 100,000. However, Homo sapiens has also been affected by disasters many times, and at least less than 10,000 people are left (Taba Catastrophe Theory, New Dryas Incident).
Scientists believe that the key to the victory of Homo sapiens is to be more united and willing to exchange technology and resources. Stone tool evidence also shows that Homo sapiens possesses more deadly and advanced weapons. Neanderthals are not rivals in the fight for territory. Neanderthals are isolated, limiting technological development, and the specific causes of extinction or isolation caused small groups of inbreeding, reducing genetic diversity, or some epidemic disease made them extinct, or they were caused by homo sapiens Annihilated.
Even if Neanderthals were not affected by natural disasters, there will only be one kind of people left in the world today, whether they are Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, or a fusion between them. Because humans are too strong, they can cross mountains, rivers, lakes and seas all over the world.
Now the rate of animal extinction has far exceeded the rate of species extinction in the last mass extinction event. The existence of a smart human on the earth is already very tired. The reason why human beings are alone may be that we are too strong.